Tuberculosis remains one of the most serious problems for patients with HIV in Eastern Europe. In Russia, up to ¼ of all patients with tuberculosis have HIV. Standard screening methods for tuberculosis do not work in patients with HIV; in most cases, tuberculosis is detected in a disseminated form, often in the form of tuberculous sepsis. At the same time, the effectiveness of treatment of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection is much greater than the efficiency in patients without HIV. The lecture examines the causes of this situation, offers solutions to the problems of organizing screening, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection.